All disease episodes should be recorded regardless of severity or treatment decisions criteria. Severity scores are provided where commonly used criteria exist.
Clinical Mastitis (Severity Score)
At a minimum:
Abnormal milk (1): flakes, clots, watery to varying degrees.
Abnormal gland (2): firmness and/or swelling, discoloration of the skin
Abnormal cow (3): varying degree of dehydration, fever, signs of depression
All cows with abnormal uterine contents should be recorded even if the cow is ‘normal’ and treatments are not given.
At a minimum:
Abnormal uterine contents: watery discharge of varying color, with a foul odor
Abnormal cow: varying degrees of dehydration, fever, signs of depression
Placenta is visible at the vulva or identified in the uterus/vagina >24 hours after calving (practical timing will be the day after the cow calves at next routine examination, which may be less than 24 hours).
Stage should be recorded. Stage 1 milk fever is likely the most inaccurately diagnosed (ie. standing, shaking and weak but normal blood calcium levels)
Cow >1st lactation, ≤3 DIM
Stage 1: Standing but shaking/twitchy/weak
Stage 2: Unable to rise, rapid heart rate (100+), decreased rumen movement, dry firm feces
High pitched “Ping” on percussion with fluid ‘sloshing’ sound when abdomen is ‘bumped’ with a fist on the right or left side. Most are ‘off-feed’ and are positive on urine ketone test.
Diseases causing Lameness
Clinical Lameness = Locomotion score of ≥3 out of 5: Arched back standing and walking with abnormal gait (3/5) or obviously favoring affected limb (4-5/5).
- Footrot – Symmetrical swelling of foot.
- Early: Claw separation due to swelling of tissue between them. Sensitive to squeezing toes together.
- Later: Swollen skin broken open with protruding dead and decaying tissue and a foul odor present.
- Sole abscess – Paring sole reveals grey-white puss and gas, sound of gas escaping may be heard as abscess is pared into.
- Early: Sensitive to pressure on sole of affected claw, softness in sole may be present.
- Later: Asymmetrical swelling of foot, swelling above the coronary band of affected claw. Sensitive to pressure on sole and softness may be present on affected claw.
- Sole ulcer – Hole in the sole of the claw with corium (sole producing soft tissue) exposed, often bleeding. Most commonly found on the outer claws of the hind feet.
- Heel wart – Lesions present between the claws just above the level of the heels on the back or on the front side of the foot at the cleft between the claws.
- Erosive lesion: rough, reddened, depression in the skin of the foot
- Proliferative lesion: raised lesion with fine finger-like projections