Key Research Findings in Environmental Health


  • Have separate, clean, well-ventilated, and lighted areas for calving
  • Group calving pens need to be 100-150 ft² per cow
  • Separate calf from the cow within 24 hours

Transporting Calves:

  • Make sure calves are dry and received colostrum before transport
  • Provide plenty of bedding for footing, warmth, and comfort
  • Provide about 4 ft² per calf in the trailer
  • Don’t force them to walk or jump – use calf cart or carry

Individual Housing:

  • Can reduce spread of disease
  • Can observe individual calf behavior and health
  • Can provide specific feed and amount and observe consumption
  • Can achieve reasonable weight gain with no effect on future performance

Small Group Housing:

  • Better calf socialization
  • Group size best 6 – 9 calves